Scientific Research is a Token of Humankind’s Survival by Vladimir Keilis-Borok

Scientific Research is a Token of Humankind’s Survival by Vladimir Keilis-Borok Exercise: Questions and Answers Class 11 English

 Understanding the text 

Answer the following questions.

a. What does a scientist get instead of big money?

➜ Instead of large sums of money, scientists are rewarded with honours and promotions. He/she receives these benefits as a result of his/her discoveries.

b. What was the problem that the nuclear powers had faced?

➜ The nuclear powers had agreed to a moratorium on nuclear weapons testing. However, they were concerned that if anyone violated the agreement by secretly testing nuclear weapons underground, they would not be able to detect it.

c. In which area did Keilis Borok's theoretical knowledge have a direct application?

➜ Keilis Borok's theoretical knowledge was directly applicable to human survival. Underground nuclear explosions caused earth tremors similar to those caused by earthquakes. The author would be able to tell the difference between the two types of tremors based on his knowledge. 

d. What was the important decision that the politicians took before Geneva Summit?

➜ Prior to the Geneva Summit, politicians made an important decision to prohibit the testing of nuclear weapons. The decision was made in the hope that humanity would survive. They claim that after nuclear tests are prohibited, there will be no competition for developing nuclear weapons.

e. What are the natural and man-made disasters as mentioned by the author?

➜ Natural disasters mentioned by the author include earthquakes, self-inflicted destruction of megacities, environmental catastrophes, economic and social crises, and so on, whereas man-made disasters include a massive release of radioactivity from nuclear waste disposal, an outburst of mass violence, war, and so on.

 Reference to the context 

a. The professional addressed as ‘you’ in the sentence “If you are clever, why are you so poor?” refers to a…

i. lawyer ii. doctor iii. scientist iv. businessman.

Justify your choice.

➜ It refers to a scientist. Scientists are intelligent and brilliant because of their minds. Their earnings are lower than those of other professionals such as lawyers, doctors, and businessmen. They do, however, enjoy their freedom, camaraderie, and independence. The author intends to demonstrate that, while scientists are very wise, their wisdom does not generally help them generate wealth. As a result, scientists are generally wise but not wealthy.

b. The writer says, “I found myself in Geneva.” What does it express?

➜ It expresses the author's surprise. He was unexpectedly summoned to a nuclear weapons conference in Geneva. While arguing with Moscow experts, American scientist Frank Press cited his work.

c. Are the following statements true? Why or why not? Discuss with your partner.

i. Money is more powerful than intellectual resources.

➜ This statement is not true. Money is transient, whereas intellectual resources continue to produce excellent results. There is no financial guarantee. Money causes a slew of issues. Intellectual resources, on the other hand, can propel anyone to success and perfection.

ii. Intellectual resources help survival of the mankind.

➜ This statement is true. Intellectual resources are nothing more than hopes for the future of humanity. Humanity has benefited from intellectual resources in the form of disease relief, terrorism protection, a healthy lifestyle, and entertainment.

iii. Basic research is a way of stalling disasters.

➜ This statement is true. People all over the world live their lives with confidence because they believe in scientific research. Scientists continue to study environmental changes and warn the public about potential disasters. People are safe because of their research-based information.

d. How does the essayist justify that scientific research is the humankind’s survival?

➜ By presenting his arguments in favour of science and its research-based inventions, the essayist argues that scientific research is essential to human survival. Science, he believes, is the unavoidable guardian and caretaker of humankind's survival. Scientific research ensures the survival of humanity. Science and its researchers can only find solutions to problems in people's lives. It is science that can provide us with new energy sources, mineral deposits, medicines, and effective anti-terrorism defenses. Scientists can easily predict impending disasters and save humanity. It is the only science that can guarantee that we are moving with time in a safe manner. Thus, the writer has numerous reasons to believe that scientific research is humanity's best hope for survival.

e. What can be the purpose of the essayist of using quotations in the essay?

➜ The purpose of the essayist's use of quotations in the essay is to make all of his readers aware of the main points that he wishes to convey. The essayist continues to use quotations from legends to support his ideas in his essay.

f. Discuss and illustrate the writer’s stand that scientists are the most practical people in the world

➜ The author's position in this essay is that scientists are the most practical people on the planet. According to him, their practical application can be seen in new technologies and new brands in industries ranging from defence to entertainment. Antibiotics, electronics, biotechnology, synthetic fibres, modes of transportation, the green revolution, and genetic forensic diagnosis are all inventions of scientists. Hence, This proves that scientists are the most practical people.

 Reference beyond the text 

a. Everyone lives under the fear of annihilation by nuclear weapons. Explain this statement.

➜ The essayist is informing all of his readers about the dangerous situation of the cold war in 1960 in this line. It was a terrifying situation. The superpowers, such as the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom, had more than enough nuclear bombs to destroy the other countries in a single strike. As a result, every man, woman, and child on the planet lived under the threat of nuclear annihilation. These superpowers were willing to reach an agreement in order to deal with this threat.

b. The essayist says ‘While there is science, there is hope of survival and wellbeing for all of us.’ Explain it.

➜ The essayist says ‘While there is science, there is the hope of survival and wellbeing for all of us.’ According to the essayist, science is our unavoidable guardian and caretaker because it is the only science capable of ensuring that we move with time safely. Countries had signed a treaty to refrain from secretly testing nuclear weapons for the sake of humanity's survival. Countries had signed a treaty to refrain from secretly testing nuclear weapons for the sake of humanity's survival. However, science and its scientists ensured the survival of humanity. It is the only science capable of distinguishing between tremors caused by nuclear explosions and natural earthquakes. It is the science that can provide us with new energy sources, mineral deposits, and effective anti-terrorism defences. Science's hope for humanity's survival has a broader significance as well. In the current scenario, both natural and man-made disasters endanger humanity's safety. Whether it is a tsunami or terrorism, money alone will not solve the problem. The only hope is for scientific solutions. Thus, the author has a plethora of reasons to conclude that science is the only hope for survival.

c. Is science a blessing or a curse? Write an essay on it

➜ Science is the systematic search for and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social worlds using the evidence-based methodology. Scientists experiment with a variety of new things related to the world and life. Science can be viewed as both a boon and a curse. The application of science is the most important aspect of it. Science has performed various tasks for the benefit of mankind, but it has also had a number of negative effects on humanity in this world. Antibiotics, electronics, biotechnology, synthetic fibres, the green revolution, and genetic forensic diagnosis are all inventions of scientists. All of these inventions have improved people's lives. People's lives are always aided by a basic understanding of science. Most people are dying out today as a result of science and its inventions. Different types of weapons are the result of science. Science should not be used to harm humanity. It should be used to benefit humanity. Hence, science should be used with good intentions.


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